Evidence-Based Medical Monitoring: From Principles to Practice (Evidence-Based Medicine)


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In order to achieve higher goals such as promotion of clinical effectiveness, patient safety, effectiveness and improvement of health outcomes, national evidence-based health care system insures the best evidence is generated, stored, used, shared and finally monitored and evaluated in order to provide effective and safe services in a systematic process and according to needs of different stakeholders. National Health Care System is one of the main subsystems of the health system which is responsible for providing health service and health care.

In fact, subsystem of health service delivery is regarded as the most objective and most tangible function of the health system and it reflects impacts of other health system functions. On the other hand, among these functions, stewardship is considered as the central function of the health system and the trusted and reliance point of health systems in achievement of their goal.

This function means determining and enhancing excusive rules and providing directions and strategies for all actors of the system and accepting accountability at highest level which Ministry of Health and Medical Education on behalf of the government is responsible for this task.

David Sackett: The father of evidence-based medicine

Stewardship status and social accountability of the governments necessitates that National Health Care System to provide the best quality health care and service for the people. In order to achieve clinical effectiveness, the best practice should be realized in the country. The requirement for the best practice is insuring reference to the best local evidence in different parts of the health care.

Table 1 gives inter-mediate goals, strategies and subsystems of this system.


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This paper is a study of comparative type which has been written in three stages:. Investigation of structure and process of evidence based practice in selected countries,. Investigation and analysis of current status in Iran in this regard in terms of service delivery and medical education. Investigation and recommendation of strategies and methods which make model implementation more feasible in the country. In order to investigate status of evidence based practice system, following related literature review, some developed countries including England, USA, Canada, Australia, and Scotland were selected which were leading countries in this regard.

Used sources included studies related to introduction and analysis of data bases and system associated to responsible agencies in respective countries. Evidence based practice were studied in the respective countries in terms of dimensions of organization and stewardship, knowledge products, distribution and support of evidence application and the way of performance monitoring. Results of these studies are given in Table 2. In order to investigate and analyze the status in the country, 12 of the scholars, instructors and experts related to the subject were selected using purposeful sampling and focus group discussion was used in order to analyze and classify.

Strengths and weak points and barriers to evidence based practice in the same areas organization and stewardship, used knowledge products, distribution and support of evidence application, and performance monitoring as well as knowledge of the physicians on the evidence based practice and motives of the physicians for change in practice system were evaluated and analyzed. Finally, focus group discussion was used in order to investigate strategies which are applicable and feasible in Iran, and strategies were studied in terms of the following aspects:.

Evidence based health care system in England, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Scotland were studied in terms of the organization and stewardship, knowledge products, distribution and support of evidence application and performance monitoring. Table 2 examines this system in the respective countries. According to studies, insuring an evidence based practice culture in the country requires a system called national evidence-based health care system which consists of three subsystems as follows:.

National Clinical Knowledge Management System NCKMS includes activities, actions, processes and structures which promote, facilitate and guarantee clinical knowledge management in the country Fig. When subject of insuring clinical knowledge management through frameworks of the national system of clinical knowledge management is raised, it means insuring monitoring and providing possibility for regular control of the new data which are published in scattered manner. The outcome of processes and actions carried out in the national system of the clinical knowledge management regarding dominant social, economic, cultural circumstances and values of the country, leads to products which are called Knowledge Products.

These products which are considered as the main constituents of the system in units of the clinical knowledge management, are produced based on two approaches: reactive and proactive. Reactive approach is the approach in which reaction is given regarding current problems and difficulties in the health system of the country and by developing and distributing appropriate knowledge products it is attempted to solve the problems.

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Proactive or prospective approach is the approach in which clinical knowledge management is done in parallel to knowledge push in the world. In other words, monitoring of the new information is done with a proactive approach regarding national priorities in different clinical levels in order to match knowledge resulting from this information with national needs of the country. Clinical knowledge management units, multi-disciplinary teams of clinical knowledge management, and clinical knowledge managers are considered as the most important pillars of the national system of clinical knowledge management.


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In addition, this system provides structure, frameworks, incentives and requirements so as to achieve its goals so that production of knowledge products needed in the country are facilitated, promoted and insured. Knowledge products produced in this system include pay knowledge, health technology reporting, clinical guidelines, and systematic reviews. In this case, its observation would be mandatory for all provides on public sector and non-governmental sector and licensing system at individual level and validating system at organizational level support such policies.

National Evidence Based Practice System NEBPS includes actions, activities, processes and structures which promote, facilitate and guarantee usage of clinical policies or knowledge products produced at national level Table 3. As it can be seen from Table 3 , national evidence based practice system is composed of various components. In this system, evidence based provides in evidence based health centers that their structure, processes and infrastructures facilitate, promote and guarantee evidence based decision making, are seeking for establishment of such a system that institutionalize delivery of the most effective services to patients through production and application the local knowledge products.

Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine: Principles, Practice, and Outcomes, 2nd Edition

Evidence based care providers make reference to knowledge products produced by national system of clinical knowledge management and local knowledge products produced by them in order to make decision. Providers in this system have a reactive approach to knowledge production since no clinical decision-making body would be able to acquire all the needed knowledge and predict all clinical questions needing answer. Thus, both evidence based care providers and clinical knowledge managers produce evidence, but there is essential difference in features and characteristics of the process of evidence production by these two groups Table 4.

Traditional care providers have the least self-learning and therefore effort. Hence, evidence based care providers are divided into three levels based on their performance in production and application of the knowledge products, that is, care providers of level one, two and three. In this system, in addition to classification of care providers, service provider centers are also classified based on their evidence based units performance. In this system, there such components as electronic evidence based performance portfolio, certificate and characteristics of the evidence based centers and departments, educational service on principles of evidence based decision making and evidence based practice.

Preserving and promoting service quality and health care is one of the major tasks of the governments. Clinical effectiveness is one of quality aspects, requirement of which is access to the best evidence. Thus Evidence base health care system ensures that the best evidence are produced, stored, disseminated, used and shared for providing effective and safe services through a systematic process according to needs of different stakeholders and finally it is monitored and evaluated. It cannot be achieved without active participation of Ministry of health and medical education and other involved organizations in health policy making.

Investigation of consideration process and emphasis on the health quality and care in UK and USA indicates that without imposing macro interventions at national level, quality improvement and especially clinical effectiveness promotion as the core of quality would not be possible For example, report by Institute of Medicine IOM in USA in mentioned several basic interventions for quality promotion all of which suggest involvement of health system stewardship in this process and following cases can be mentioned: Prohibition of approval of drugs with name, packaging, color and appearance similar to it, change in payment system, search management and access to the best evidence, changes in the educational system, mandatory use of Computerized physician order entry CPOE - and use of reminders Lack of legal requirement to rely on the best available evidence, insufficient skills in the use of evidence in daily practice, evidence-based decision-making, inability to produce documentary evidence, lack of financial and non-financial incentives to produce evidence according to local conditions and similar experiences in countries like Australia 22 in the NHMRC program 22 , UK in NICE program 23 , Scotland in SIGN program 24 , USA in AHRQ program 25 , Canada in CMA Program 26 and New Zealand in NZGG program 27 demonstrate that only presence of national plan and macro interventions can guarantee evidence production and application.

Implementation of the evidence based practice requires a system and this system needs a set of micro and macro strategies enabling facilitations, promotion and guaranteeing production and application of the clinical knowledge in the country. Thus, the government should adopt policies and interventions for changing behavior in three levels of promotional, facilitation and guarantying. Policies and interventions should influence on both at individual and organization level and certainly implementation of such interventions needs external and internal cooperation of the various stakeholders in the country.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Iran J Public Health. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Received Mar 5; Accepted Jun This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background: Regarding the role and importance of paradigm of evidence based practice and its remarkable impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of clinical services and healthcare, development of an integrated system seems necessary in order to manage dispersed data and ensure using evidence in clinical decision making, thus the aim of this study was designing a model for implementing national system of evidence based health care in Iran.

An Introduction to Evidence Based Medicine

Methodos: This paper is a study of comparative type which has been written in three stages: investigation of structure and process of evidence based practice in selected countries, investigation and analysis of current status in Iran in this regard and recommendation of strategies which make model implementation feasible in the country. Results: According to studies, insuring an evidence based practice culture in the country requires a system called National Evidence Based Health Care System which consists of three subsystems including national system of clinical knowledge management, national evidence-based practice system and integrated national network of clinical effectiveness.

Conclusion: The ultimate goal of health care system in every country is maintaining and improving community health. National Evidence based Health Care System National Health Care System is one of the main subsystems of the health system which is responsible for providing health service and health care. Open in a separate window.

Methods This paper is a study of comparative type which has been written in three stages: Investigation of structure and process of evidence based practice in selected countries, Investigation and analysis of current status in Iran in this regard in terms of service delivery and medical education Investigation and recommendation of strategies and methods which make model implementation more feasible in the country.

Finally, focus group discussion was used in order to investigate strategies which are applicable and feasible in Iran, and strategies were studied in terms of the following aspects: Needed structure processes knowledge products and outputs motivation needed support regulation performance monitoring Table 2: Comparison of the evidence based practice system in respective countries.

Scotland 15 USA 16 England 17 , 18 Canada 19 Organization and stewardship Health Improvement Scotland acts as the main organization Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality AHRQ synthesizes evidence for quality improvement and medical intervention effectiveness through centers of evidence based practice Evidence based medical center which mainly acts on education and synthesis of evidence, and Kacrin which responsible for evidence synthesis.

These are among institutions which are acting in this country. Canadian universities participate in system of evidence based centers in evidence and Health and Quality Research Center Knowledge products Development of standard, clinical guidance and evaluation of new technologies Meta-analysis, effectiveness cost analysis, clinical guidance Developing a systematic review, clinical guidance, health technology assessment, standards and meta-analysis Meta-analysis, effectiveness cost analysis, protocol Distribution and support of evidence application Training, guidelines for implementation, development of the clinical audit standards, executive supports Protocols, decision support systems, training, development of standards for using evidence in various centers National clinical policies, national guidance Protocols, decision support systems, training Performance monitoring based on evidence application Reporting system, determination of indices, Monitoring quality improvement of the centers Monitoring quality improvement of the centers.

Results Evidence based health care system in England, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Scotland were studied in terms of the organization and stewardship, knowledge products, distribution and support of evidence application and performance monitoring.

Authors and Disclosures

According to studies, insuring an evidence based practice culture in the country requires a system called national evidence-based health care system which consists of three subsystems as follows: National system of clinical knowledge management, National evidence-based practice system Integrated national network of clinical effectiveness. Function and objective Insuring application of the knowledge products results and institutionalizing evidence-based clinical decision making Components evidence based health centers evidence based care providers electronic system of evidence based practice support interventions of the evidence application.

Discussion Preserving and promoting service quality and health care is one of the major tasks of the governments. Conclusion Implementation of the evidence based practice requires a system and this system needs a set of micro and macro strategies enabling facilitations, promotion and guaranteeing production and application of the clinical knowledge in the country. Acknowledgments The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests.

David Sackett: The father of evidence-based medicine - The Globe and Mail

References 1. Health Information Management.


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Evidence-Based Medical Monitoring: From Principles to Practice (Evidence-Based Medicine) Evidence-Based Medical Monitoring: From Principles to Practice (Evidence-Based Medicine)
Evidence-Based Medical Monitoring: From Principles to Practice (Evidence-Based Medicine) Evidence-Based Medical Monitoring: From Principles to Practice (Evidence-Based Medicine)
Evidence-Based Medical Monitoring: From Principles to Practice (Evidence-Based Medicine) Evidence-Based Medical Monitoring: From Principles to Practice (Evidence-Based Medicine)
Evidence-Based Medical Monitoring: From Principles to Practice (Evidence-Based Medicine) Evidence-Based Medical Monitoring: From Principles to Practice (Evidence-Based Medicine)
Evidence-Based Medical Monitoring: From Principles to Practice (Evidence-Based Medicine) Evidence-Based Medical Monitoring: From Principles to Practice (Evidence-Based Medicine)
Evidence-Based Medical Monitoring: From Principles to Practice (Evidence-Based Medicine) Evidence-Based Medical Monitoring: From Principles to Practice (Evidence-Based Medicine)
Evidence-Based Medical Monitoring: From Principles to Practice (Evidence-Based Medicine) Evidence-Based Medical Monitoring: From Principles to Practice (Evidence-Based Medicine)

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